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- Oct 2nd, 2008, 04:04 PM #1----
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I want to about the history of caste Gujjar. From where its started? Are they also belongs to Mongols too or some other else.
- Oct 2nd, 2008, 04:44 PM #2----
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I think i read somewhere on the bbc website sometime ago that Gujjars originated from Gujarat india, but that could just be me mis-remembering. Are they like a travelling tribe?
- Oct 2nd, 2008, 04:46 PM #3----
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^gujjer from gujjrat hahahahaha
- Oct 3rd, 2008, 07:04 AM #4----
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^ wots so funny?
- Oct 3rd, 2008, 07:33 AM #5----
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Gujjar - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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Castes of IndiaGujjar or GurjarClassificationKshatriyaSubdivisionsSignificant populations inIndia, Pakistan and AfghanistanLanguagesGujari, Urdu, Hindi, Punjabi, Pashto, Pahari languages, Kashmiri, Kutchi, Khojki, Gujarati, Khowar), Balti etc.ReligionsHinduism, Islam; Sikhism and Jainism to a minor extentThe Gujjar (Hindi: गुज्जर, Urdu: گجر) or Gurjar (Hindi: गुर्जर, Urdu: گُرجر) are an ethnic group in India and Pakistan. Alternative spellings include Gurjara, Gujar and Goojar.
The Gujjars follow Hinduism, Sikhism and Islam. The Hindu Gurjars belong to the traditional Kshatriya varna in Hinduism, while the Muslim Gujjars are considered to be a Potwari tribe in India and Pakistan.
- <LI class=toclevel-1>1 History
2 Demographics <LI class=toclevel-1>3 Gujjars in India
- <LI class=toclevel-2>3.1 Delhi <LI class=toclevel-2>3.2 Haryana <LI class=toclevel-2>3.3 Indian administered Kashmir <LI class=toclevel-2>3.4 Van Gujjars <LI class=toclevel-2>3.5 Punjab <LI class=toclevel-2>3.6 Rajasthan <LI class=toclevel-2>3.7 Uttar Pradesh <LI class=toclevel-2>3.8 Madhya Pradesh
- 3.9 Gujarat and Maharashtra
5 See also <LI class=toclevel-1>6 Further reading <LI class=toclevel-1>7 External links
- 8 References
The origins of the Gurjars are uncertain.. The Gurjara clan appeared in northern India about the time of the Huna invasions of northern India. Some scholars, such as V. A. Smith, believed that the Gujjars were foreign immigrants, possibly a branch of Hephthalites ("White Huns"). D. B. Bhandarkar (1875-1950) believed that Gujars came into India with the Hunas, and the name of the tribe was sanskritized to "Gurjara". He also believed that several places in Central Asia, such as "Gurjistan", are named after the Gujars and that the reminiscences of Gujar migration is preserved in these names. General Cunningham identified the Gujjars with Yuezhi or Tocharians.
In the past, Gujjars have also been hypothesized to be descended from the nomadic Khazar tribes, although the history of Khazars shows an entirely different politico-cultural ethos In Gazetteer of Bombay Presidency, the British civil servant James M. Campbell identified Gujars with Khazars.
Some Gujjars also claim that the Gujjar caste is related to the Chechens and the Georgians, and argue that Georgia was traditionally called "Gujaristan" (actually Gorjestan) The state of Gujarat in Western India, gets its name from the Gujjars or Gurjars who migrated and settled from Central Asia. Some of them also claim that Germans are Gujjars. However, there is no evidence for such claims. The word "Georgia" derived from the Arabic and Persian word Gurj, and not Gujjar or Gurjar.
 Gujjar rulers
The Gurjara-Pratihara kingdom and other contemporary kingdoms.
According to some historical accounts, the kingdom with capital at Bhinmal (or Srimal) was established by the Gujjars. A minor kingdom of Bharuch was the offshoot of this Kingdom. In 640-41 CE, the Chinese traveller Xuanzang (Hieun Tsang) described the kingdoms of Su-la-cha (identified with Saurashtra) and Kiu-che-lo (identified with Gurjara) in his writings. He stated that the Gurjaras ruled a rich and populous kingdom with capital at Bhinmal (Pilo-mo-lo). According to his expositor, M. Vivien de St. Martin, Su-la-cha represents the modern Gujarat, and Kiu-che-lo (Gurjjara), "the country of the Gujars", represents the region between between Anhilwara and the Indus River, i.e. Sindh region.
Vincent Smith believed that the Pratihara dynasty, which ruled a large kingdom in northern India from the 6th to the 11th centuries, and has been mentioned as "Gurjara-Pratiharas" in an inscription, was certainly of Gurjara origin. Smith also stated that there is possibility of other Agnikula Rajput clans being of same origin. Dr. K. Jamanadas also states that the Pratihara clan of Rajputs descended from the Gujjars, and this "raises a strong presumption that the other Rajput clans also are the descendants from the Gurjaras or the allied foreign immigrants". D. B. Bhandarkar also believed that Pratiharas were a clan of Gujjars. In his book The Glory that was Gujardesh (1943), Gurjar writer K. M. Munshi stated that the Pratiharas, the Paramaras and the Solankis were imperial Gujjars.
However, some other historians believe that although some sections of the Pratiharas (eg. the one to which Mathanadeva belonged) were Gujjars by caste, the imperial Pratiharas of Kannauj were not Gujjars and there was no Gurjara empire in Northern India. H. A. Rose and Denzil Ibbetson stated that there is no conclusive proof that the Agnikula Rajput clans are of Gurjara origin; they believed that there is possibility of the indigenous tribes adopting Gurjara names, when their founders were enfiefed by Gurjara rulers.
Over the years, the Gurjars were assimilated mainly into the castes of Kshatriya varna, although some Gurjar groups (such as Gaur Gurjars of central India) are classified as Brahmins. During the Muslim conquest in the Indian subcontinent, many of the Gurjar Hindus converted to Islam.
 British rule
In the eighteenth century, several Gujjar chieftains and small kings were in power. During the reign of Rohilla Nawab Najib-ul-Daula, Dargahi Singh, the Gujjar chieftain of Dadri possessed 133 villages at a fixed revenue of Rs. 29,000. A fort at Parlchhatgarh in Meerut District, also known as Qila Parikishatgarh, is ascribed to a Gujjar Raja Nain Singh. According to a legend, the fort was built by Parik****a and restored by Nain Singh in the eighteenth century. The fort was dismantled in 1857, to be used as a police station.
The Imperial Gazetteer of India states that throughout the Indian Rebellion of 1857, the Gujars and Musalman (Muslim) Rajputs proved the "most irreconcilable enemies" of the British in the Bulandshahr area. A band of rebellious Gujjars ransacked Bulandshahr after a revolt by the 9th Native Infantry on May 21, 1857. The British officers initially left for Meerut but later sent a small force to retake the town. The British forces were able to retake the town with the help of Dehra Gurkhas, but the Gujars rose again after the Gurkhas marched off to assist General Wilson's column in another area. Under the leadership of Walidad Khan of Malagarh, the British garrison was driven out the district. Walidad Khan held Bulandshahr from July to September, until he was expelled after an engagement with Colonel Greathed's flying column. On October 4, the Bulandshahr District was regularly occupied by the British Colonel Farquhar and measures of repression were adopted against the armed Gujars.
During the revolt of 1857, the Muslim Gujars in the villages of the Ludhiana District showed dissent to the British authorities. The British interests in Gangoh city of Saharanpur District were threatened by the rebel Gujars under the self-styled Raja Fathua. These Gujars rebels were defeated by the British forces under H. D. Robertson and Lieutenant Boisragon, in June 1857. The Gujars of Chundrowli rose against the British, under the leadership of Damar Ram. The Gujars of Shunkuri village, numbering around three thousand, joined the rebel sepoys. According to British records, the Gujars plundered gunpowder and ammunition from the British and their allies. In Delhi, the Metcalfe House was sacked by the Gujjar villagers from whom the land was taken to erect the building. The British records claim that the Gujars carried out several robberies. Twenty Gujars were reported to have been beheaded by Rao Tula Ram for committing dacoities in July 1857. In September 1857, the British were able to enliist the support of many Jats and Gujars at Meerut.
The British classified the Gujjars (and around 150 other Indian communities) as "criminal tribe" through the Criminal Tribes Act, 1871 (later repealed by the Government of independent India in 1952). Some believe that the British classified the nomadic tribes as "criminal tribes" because they considered these tribes to be prone to criminality in the absence of legitimate means of livelihood, and also because of their participation in the revolt of 1857. The Imperial Gazetteer of India stated that the Gujars were impoverished due to their "lawlessness in the Mutiny"., and that the Gujars in Delhi had a "bad reputation as thieves".
During the World War II, several Gujjars served in the British Indian army. Kamal Ram, a Gujjar sepoy, was awarded the Victoria Cross for gallantry.
Gujjars are mainly concentrated in the Indo-Gangetic plains, the Himalayan region, and eastern parts of Afghanistan, although the Gujjar diaspora is found in other places as well. A majority of Gujjars follow Hinduism and Islam, though small Gujjar communities following other religions exist.
Gujari (or Gojri), classified under Rajasthani, has traditionally been the primary language of the Gujjars. But, Gujjars living in different areas speak several other languages including Hindi, Marathi, Urdu, Punjabi, Pothohari, Pahari languages (such as Dogri and Kangri), Pashto language, Dardic languages (such as Kashmiri and Khowar), and Balti.
 Gujjars in India
In India, Gujjar populations are found mainly in Delhi, Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Punjab, western Uttar Pradesh, Haryana, northern Madhya Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Rajasthan, Gujarat and Maharashtra. The semi-nomadic Gujjar groups are found in the states of Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, and north-western Uttar Pradesh. The name for the state of Gujarat has derived from "Gurjar" .
Gujjars in North India are now considered as a vote bank by some political parties.. Rajesh Pilot was a major Gujjar leader in North India. The Gujjars were classified as a Scheduled Tribe in Himachal Pradesh and Jammu & Kashmir, and as Other Backward Class in Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh.
Gujjars are mainly found in Delhi: that includes a majority of villages in northern part of delhi are of KHARI(6 villages- namely Chandrawal, Rampura, Gopalpur, Wazirpur,Judbagh and Sultanpur,Tanwar (8 Villages seven in delhi and one falls in Gurgaon district of Haryana namely Fathpur Beri,Asola,Chandan Hola, Dera,Mandi,Bhati Kalan, Bhati Khurd and Gwalpahari(Gurgaon) Mavi 5 Village ambavata(4 villages), Bhati(24 villages),Dedha(24 villages namely Usmanpur, Ghonda, Ghamari, Ghari Mendu, Khajuri Khas, Sherpur, Sadatpur, Biharipur, Shamepur, Gokalpur, Dayalpur, Tukhmirpur, Silampur, Bhuapur, Khichripur, Gazipur, Kotla, Karkar Duman, Chilla, Dalupura, Patpar Ganj, Ghondli, Khuraji Khas and Kondli) basoya (6 villages Aliganj,Pilanji,Khairpur), bidhuri/bidhudi(5 villages namely Tughaqabad, Madanpur Khadar, Jasola), rexwal, (2 villages namely Badarpur and Aali) Bosatta (2 villages namely Khanpur and Sarai Kale Khan) [[Naagar] (hasanpur is the only village in delhi ), Kohli gurjar (one village zumrudpur),,[[Media:lohias]LOHIAS(2 villages ghitorni and Aayanagar) Bainsla gurjar (one village Kotla Mubarakpur)
The main gotras of Gurjars found in the Faridabad District of Haryana include Bhadana (14 villages), Mavi (10 Village) in Badka Teh PalwalNagar (84 villages), Baisla (26 village), Phagna(1 Village) and Poswal (3 village). The Bhadana gotra in Faridabad District launched an anti-dowry campaign in 2002. The community set elaborate guidelines for solemnizing marriages and holding other functions. In a mahapanchayat ("the great panchayat"), the Gujjar community decided that those who sought dowry would be excommunicated from the society. Brigadier Hem Chand Nagar, born in village Tigaon in Ballabhgarh Tehsil of Faridabad district was the first brigadier among the Gurjar Community.
 Indian administered Kashmir
In Jammu & Kashmir, the concentration of Gujjars is observed in the districts of Rajouri and Poonch, followed by, Ananatnag, Udhampur and Doda districts. It is believed that Gujjars migrated to Jammu and Kashmir from Gujarat (via Rajasthan) and Hazara district of NWFP. Another group called Bakarwal (or Bakerwal or Dhangar) belongs to the same ethnic stock as the Gujjars, and inter-marriages freely take place among them.
The Gujjars and the Bakarwals in Jammu and Kashmir were notified as the Scheduled Tribes vide the Constitution (Scheduled Tribes) Order (Amendment) Act, 1991. According to the 2001 Census of India, Gujjar is the most populous scheduled tribe in J&K, having a population of 763,806. Around 99.3 per cent population of Gujjar and Bakarwal in J&K follow Islam.
In 2002, some Gujjars and Bakarwals in J&K demanded a separate state (Gujaristan) for Gujjar and Bakerwal communities, under the banner of India Gujjar Parishad.
 Van Gujjars
The Van Gujjars ("forest Gujjars") are found in the Shivalik hills area of North India. The Van Gujjars follow Islam, and they have their own clans, similar to the Hindu gotras. They are a pastoral semi-nomadic community, practising transhumance. In the winter season, the Van Gujjars migrate with their herds to the Shiwalik foothills, and in summer, they migrate to pastures high up in the mountains. The Van Gujjars have had conflicts with the forest authorities, who prohibited human and livestock populations inside a reserved park, and blamed the Van Gujjar community for poaching and timber smuggling. After the creation of the Rajaji National Park (RNP), the Van Gujjars in Deharadun were asked to shift to a resettlement colony at Pathari near Hardwar. In 1992, when the Van Gujjars returned to the foothills, the RNP authorities tried to block them from the park area. The community fought back and finally the forsest authorities had to relent. Later, a community forest management (CFM) programme aiming to involve the Van Gujjars in forest management was launched.
Gujjars of Punjab are mainly found in Nawanshahr, Hoshiarpur, Patiala, Fatehgarh, Mohali and Anandpur District. In this area, their villages are In heavy concentration. They are both Hindu as well as sikh by religion. Their main profession is agriculture and business. They are called as chaudhary in the area. The last names of the Punjabi Gujjars include Kasana, Khepar, Kataria, Chaudhary, Bjarh, Chauhan, Bhumbla, Chandpuri, Chechi, Meelu, Hans, Bagri, khatana and others. The tradition of buffalo milk in Punjab can be attributed to the nomad Gujjars arriving in the Punjab plains with their live stock. There are old folk songs about Gujjar women selling milk in Punjabi villages and the nomad Gujjars displaying their livestock of buffaloes for sale. There are many Gujjar villages in Punjab (India) and most of these Gujjars are Sikhs. Even now, the nomad Gujjars come from Kashmir and sell their artifacts and livestock in Punjab. These nomad Gujjars are mostly Muslims just like their counterparts in Pakistan.
Some famous Army men from the community who hail from Punjab
Brigadier (retired) Kuldip Singh Chandpuri was born into a Gujjar Sikh family in Chandpur Rurki, Punjab(India) and he currently lives in Chandigarh. He is known for his heroic leadership in the famous Battle of Longewala for which he was awarded Maha Vir Chakra (MVC) by the Indian Army.
Colonel (retired) Jai Chand is the first despatch rider to grow up to the rank of full Colonel, born in famous Naghia Ram "Mehar" family of village Dangori (Beet)Garhshankar in District Hoshiarpur,Punjab(India). A matriculate from Govt High School ,Binewal (Beet) joined Corp of Signals as Despatch riders in 1955. As Despatch rider, used to deliver important and urgent messages to and from headquarters and military units in war. Served a vital role at a time when telecommunications were limited and insecure. He got commissioned in 1971 as Cipher Officer and retired in 1991.
In Rajasthan, some members of the Gujjar community resorted to violent protests over the issue of reservation in 2006 and 2007. During the 2003 Election to the Rajasthan assembly the BJP had promised the gujjars ST status as they had included the Jats as the OBC's.Former prime minister of india Atal Bihari Vajpayee promised the jats of rajasthan O.B.C.status.This upset the gurjars as the jats enjoy a much better financial status and are a more influential & powerful community than the gurjars.The gurjars didn't want to share the O.B.C. status with the jats because this hurt their political ambitions as the members of the jat community won the assembly elections and the LOK SABHA elections in the constituencies reserved for the O.B.C.'s.So the gurjars demanded S.T. status to be in some kind of contention in the elections. .This promise was not kept. In September 2006, the Gujjars organized violent protests, after the ruling Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) failed to keep its promise of including the community in the Scheduled Tribes (ST) category. In May 2007, during violent protests over the reservation issue, the members of the Gujjar community clashed with the police twenty six people (including two policemen). Subsequently, the Gujjars protested violently, under various groups including the Gujjar Sangarsh Samiti, Gujjar Mahasabha and the Gujjar Action Committee The protestors blocked roads and set fire to two police stations and some vehicles. Presently, the Gurjars in Rajasthan are classified as Other Backward Classes (OBCs)..
On June 05, 2007 the Gujjar rioted over their desire to be added to the governments of India list of tribes who are given preference in India government job selection as well as placement in the schools sponsored by the states of India. This preference is given under a system designed to help India's poor and disadvantaged citizens. However, other tribes on the list oppose this request as it would make it harder to obtain the few positions already set aside.
In December 2007, the Akhil Bhartiya Gujjar Mahasabha ("All-India Gurjar Council") stated that the community would boycott BJP, which is in power in Rajasthan.
In early 2000s, the Gujjar community in Rajasthan was also in news for the falling sex ratio, unavailability of brides and the resulting polyandry.
See also: 2008 caste violence in Rajasthan
 Uttar Pradesh
In Uttar Pradesh, the Gurjar populations are found mainly in the western U.P. region. This includes Saharanpur, Muzaffarnagar, Meerut, Bijnor, Moradabad, Ghaziabad, Noida, Bulandshahar, and Bareilly. To a lesser extent, they are also found in Rampur, Agra and Bundelkhand. The most common gotras are Adhana, Chaudhry, Mundan, Khubbad, Chhokar, Kalsiyan, Chauhan, Poswal, Rathi, Chechi, Panwar, Bhati,bataar, Baisla, Tomar, Kasana, Karhana, Bhadana and Nagar. Generally, the Gurjars in western U.P. and N.C.R. are well-off; their economy depends on agriculture, milk trade and production, and to a minor extent, real estate.
 Madhya Pradesh
According to the British records, the Gujjar population in Central India was around 56,000 in 1911. Most of these Gujjars were concentrated in the Nimar and Hoshangabad regions of the Narmada vallery. Most of these were migrants from the Gwalior region, while some of the Gujjars in Nimar area were immigrants from Gujarat. Presently, the Gurjars in Madhya Pradesh are classified as Other Backward Classes (OBCs)..
 Gujarat and Maharashtra
A few scholars believe that the Leva Kunbis (or Kambis) of Gujarat, a section of the Patidars, are possibly of Gujjar origin.. However, several others state that the Patidars are Kurmis or Kunbis (Kanbis).; the National Commission for Backward Classes of India lists Leva Patidars (or Lewa Petidars) as a sub-caste of Kunbis/Kurmis. Dode Gujar and Dore Gujar are listed as separate caste in Maharastra and Gujjar are included in OBC list in Gujarat but Patidars are not. Most of Patidar associations clearly mention in their history that they are the part of Kurmi Samaj.
Among Marathas, one of the major clans is called "Gujar". Prataprao Gujar was the third royal Sarnaubat (Commander-in-chief) of Maratha ruler Shivaji's army. Sidhoji Gujar was a notable admiral in Shivaji's navy. The Khandesh region in Maharashtra has a sizable Gujjar population, the major sub-castes being Dode Gujar, Leva Gujar, Bad Gujar etc.
A community using Gurjar and Gurjarpadhye as their surnames resides in the coastal Konkan region of Maharashtra, inhabiting Pangre, Hasol, and other villages in Ratnagiri District. Originally bearing the name "Gurjarpadhye", many now prefer to call themselves Gurjar. The community may have been living in the Konkan region for at least three centuries, although this estimate may be inaccurate. The community is a sub-caste of the larger Karhade Brahmin group and speaks the Marathi language. This community might be a part of the bigger Gujjar community. However, it is difficult to explain how they settled down in the Konkan region and are Brahmins rather than Kshatriyas. Local pandits claim that the Gurjars are essentially a priestly community and that it is only the subcastes that assumed Kshatriya status in order to earn a livelihood in other more practical professions.
Gujjar are also found in some clans of Kshtriya Dhangar. Dode Gujar and Dore Gujar are listed as separate caste in Maharastra and are included in OBC list in Maharashtra.
There is also one another separate caste in Maharashtra called as "Reve Gujars". Dode Gujars and Reve Gujars speak a special kind of language called as "Gujari" or "Gujrau".
 Gujjars in Pakistan
The Muslim Gujjars are considered to be a major tribe in Pakistan. Gujjars have given their names to several places in Pakistan, including Gujranwala, Gujjar Nallah, Gujar Khan, Gojra and Gujrat. Stephen M. Lyon of University of Kent has written about what he calls "Gujarism", the act of Gujars seeking out other Gujars to form associations, and consolidate ties with them, based strictly on tribal affiliation. The Gujjars have migrated and settled in many urban areas of Pakistan. Islamabad, Lahore and Karachi has now large Gujjar population.Over 47% of population of N.W.F.P is estimated to be of Gujjars.Some population is also present in urban and rural areas of Sindh and Balochistan. Ch Rehmat Ali writer of pamphlet "Now or Never" also named Pakistan as "Pakistan". Ch Fazal Elahi former President of Pakistan belongs to Village Marala Tehsil Kharian District Gujrat (Pakistan), Inder Kumar Gujral Indian Prime minister previously belongs to District Jhelum (Pakistan), are famous name among Gujjars of Pakistan.
 Azad Kashmir
There are many prominent Gujjar families in the Pakistan administered Kashmir region, in the following places: Dadyal, Mirpur, Bhalot (Mirpur), Mandi Village (Ddayal), Saliah Village (Dayal), Kund (Dadyal), Kotli (Khoi Ratta, Anderla Kothera, Shaheen Abad, Dakkhana, Phalini, Khor, Ghayeen, Kerjai, Barali Gala, Nidi Sohana, Nakyal, Chooroi, Sehnsa), Bagh (Haveli), Bura Jungle, Muzaffarabad and Neelum District.
 See also
 Further reading
- Prashad, Ram (1992). Tribal Migration in Himalayan Frontiers: Study of Gujjar Bakarwal Transhumance Economy. Vintage Books. ISBN 8185326460.
 External links
- Gujjar history articles and forum. http://freewebtown.com/ashokharsana
- Gurjar's Community Online Forum.
- Gurjar's Community Online
- The Gujjars of the Himalaya
- <LI id=cite_note-0>^ "Gurjara-Pratihara Dynastyrv". Britannica Concise. Encyclopζdia Britannica. Retrieved on 2007-05-31. <LI id=cite_note-1>^ Smith, Vincent Arthur  (1999). The Early History of India ; From 600 B.C. to the Muhammadan Conquest Including The Invasion of Alexander The Great. Atlantic Publishers and Distributors, 166-174. ISBN 8171566189. <LI id=cite_note-some_aspects_bhandarkar-2>^ a b c Bhandarkar, Devadatta Ramakrishna (1989). Some Aspects of Ancient Indian Culture. Asian Educational Services, 64. ISBN 8120604571. <LI id=cite_note-tribes_castes_rv_russel-3>^ a b Russell, R. V; R.B.H. Lai (1995). Tribes and Castes of the Central Provinces of India. Asian Educational Services, 166-174. ISBN 812060833X. <LI id=cite_note-4>^ (1996) Gurjara aura Unakā Itihāsa meṃ Yogadāna Vishaya para Prathama Itihāsa Sammelana. The Packard Humanities Institute, 34-65. Retrieved on 2007-05-31. <LI id=cite_note-gujars_gujarism-5>^ a b c Stephen M. Lyon. "Gujars and Gujarism: simple quaum versus network activism". University of Kent at Canterbury. Retrieved on 2007-05-31. <LI id=cite_note-6>^ "Gujjars from Georgia: seminar". The Tribune (1999-05-12). Retrieved on 2007-05-31. <LI id=cite_note-7>^ Curtis, Glenn E. (2004). Georgia a Country Study. Kessinger Publishing, 89. ISBN 1419121650. <LI id=cite_note-8>^ Nasmyth, Peter (2001). Georgia: In the Mountains of Poetry. Routledge, 9. ISBN 0700713956. <LI id=cite_note-9>^ Malabari Gujjar are great fighter they love fights and Gujjar are strongest in the world., Behramji Merwanji; Krishnalal M. Jhaveri (1998). Gujarat and the Gujaratis: Pictures of Men and Manners Taken from Life. Asian Educational Services, 2. ISBN 8120606515. <LI id=cite_note-10>^ Campbell, James MacNabb; Reginald Edward Enthoven (1901). Gazetteer of the Bombay Presidency. Govt. Central Press, 2. ISBN 8120606515. <LI id=cite_note-11>^ "Juzr or Jurz.". Persian Texts in Translation. The Packard Humanities Institute. Retrieved on 2007-05-31. <LI id=cite_note-horace_glossary_punjab_nwfp-12>^ a b Rose, Horace Arthur (1990). Glossary of the Tribes and Castes of the Punjab and North West Frontier Province. Asian Educational Services, 300. ISBN 8120605055. <LI id=cite_note-13>^ Jamanadas, K.. "Rajput Period Was Dark Age Of India", Decline And Fall Of Buddhism: A tragedy in Ancient India. New Delhi: Bluemoon Books. Retrieved on 2007-05-31. <LI id=cite_note-14>^ Majumdar, Ramesh Chandra  (2002). Readings in Political History of India, Ancient, Mediaeval, and Modern. B.R. Pub. Corp (on behalf of Indian Society for Prehistoric and Quaternary Studies), D.K. Publishers' Distributors, 209. "But he refused to believe that the Imperial Pratiharas of Kanauj were also Gujars in this sense." <LI id=cite_note-15>^ Imperial Gazetteer of India, vol. 2. Digital South Asia Library, 320. Retrieved on 2007-05-31. 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- ^ Saraswati, Baidyanath (1977). Brahmanic Ritual Traditions in the Crucible of Time. Indian Institute of Advanced Study, 45.
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