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  • Results 1 to 17 of 17
    1. #1
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      What is the significance of Pakistan Resolution also known as Lahore Resolution of 1940?

      Quite simply, it paved the way for the creation of Pakistan in 1947 as a single state and provided the principles of a constitutional plan for partition of India. Muslims of India instead of seeking alliance with Hindus (one nation theory) now identified themselves with a two nation theory and separate homeland for themselves. The resolution was was made part of the All-India Muslim League's consitiution in 1941 and based on this in 1946, the Muslim League demanded a separate nation from the British Raj.

      As Quaid-e-Azam put it in his address:


      "Mussalmans (Muslims) came to India as conquerers, traders and preachers and brought with them their own culture and civilization. They reformed and remoulded the sub-continent of India. Today, the hundred million Mussalmans in (British) India represent the largest compact body of Muslim population in any single part of the world. We are civilization, language and literature, art and architecture, names and nomenclature, value and proportion, legal laws and moral code,customs and calendar, history and traditions, aptitude and ambitions, in short we have our distinctive outlookof life and on life. By all canons of international law we are a nation."
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      On the historic day of Friday 23rd of March, 1940 in Minto Park, Lahore, about one hundred thousand Muslims attended the historic meeting. It was Leagues’ 27th Annual Session, which was presided over by the Quaid-e-Azam M.A. Jinnah, Maulvi A.K. Fazal-ul-Haq, Sher-e-Bengal, Chief Minister of bengal moved the famous historic Lahore Resolution.

      Minar-e-Pakistan was built on the very site where Lahore Resolution was passed. The park is now known as Iqbal Park (named after Dr. Allama Muhammad Iqbal, who was one of the greatest supporters of two nation theory)


      [thumb=E]minar11340_2644158.JPG[/thumb]

      [thumb=E]Lahore194011340_2644158.JPG[/thumb]
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      TEXT OF THE RESOLUTION

      While approving and endorsing the action taken by the Council and the Working Committee of the All-India Muslim League, as indicated in their resolutions dated the 27th of August, 17th & 18th September and 22nd of October, 1939, and 3rd of February, 1940 on the constitutional issue, this Session of the All-India Muslim League emphatically reiterates that the scheme of federation embodied in the Government of India Act 1935, is totally unsuited to, and unworkable in the peculiar conditions of this country and is altogether unacceptable to Muslim India.

      It further records its emphatic view that while the declaration dated the 18th of October, 1939 made by the Viceroy on behalf of His Majesty's Government is reassuring in so far as it declares that the policy and plan on which the Government of India Act, 1935, is based will be reconsidered in consultation with various parties, interests and communities in India, Muslims in India will not be satisfied unless the whole constitutional plan is reconsidered de novo and that no revised plan would be acceptable to Muslims unless it is framed with their approval and consent.

      Resolved that it is the considered view of this Session of the All-India Muslim League that no constitutional plan would be workable in this country or acceptable to the Muslims unless it is designed on the following basic principles, viz., that geographically contiguous units' are demarcated into regions which should be constituted, with such territorial readjustments as may be necessary that the areas in which the Muslims are numerically in a majority as in the North Western and Eastern Zones of (British) India should be grouped to constitute "independent States" in which the constituent units should be autonomous and sovereign.

      That adequate, effective and mandatory safeguards should be specifically provided in the constitution for minorities in these units in the regions for the protection of their religious, cultural, economic, political, administrative and other rights and interests in consultations with them and in other parts of (British) India where the Mussalmans (Muslims) are in a majority adequate, effective and mandatory safeguards shall be specifically provided in constitution for them and other minorities for the protection of their religious, cultural, economic, political, administrative and other rights and interests in consultation with them.

      This session further authorises the Working Committee to frame a scheme of constitution in accordance with these basic principles, providing for the assumption finally by the respective regions of all powers such as defense, external affairs, communications, customs and such other matters as may be necessary.
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      [thumb=E]1940-111340_8001412.JPG[/thumb]


      [thumb=E]1940-211340_2865358.JPG[/thumb]


      [thumb=E]1940-311340_2865358.JPG[/thumb]



      source: Lahore Resolution
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      This session further authorises the Working Committee to frame a scheme of constitution in accordance with these basic principles, providing for the assumption finally by the respective regions of all powers such as defense, external affairs, communications, customs and such other matters as may be necessary.

      The sad part is calling for the resolutions proper implementation will give you the title of traitor..

      A lasting irony is that many of the people involved in the resolution ended up being marginalised from pakistani politics.

      Good stuff
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      Some really historic pics there, 5Abi.. thanks

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      By the way, do we know when did the actual name "Pakistan" was associated with this resolution? Who came up with it? Any pics or biodata will be appreciated.

      Thanks.

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      Thanks digitalsurgeon. I happen to own that on CD-ROM.


      The word "Pakistan" was actually never mentioned in the 1940 Lahore Resolution. It emphasied on the creation of a separate homeland for the Muslims of India.

      A bit of background here is necessary.

      M. A. Jinnah joined Congress in 1906 and remained a member till 1919. He joined the Muslim League in 1913. He was known as the "Ambassador of Hindu-Muslim unity" up until the Nehru Report of 1928. Jinnah termed it as "Hindu Report" and condemned it and finally parted ways with the Congress of India. Jinnah, in turn, put forward his famous Fourteen Points that would satisfy Muslim interests - in particular, the retention of separate electorates or the creation of "safeguards" to prevent a Hindu-controlled legislature. Jinnah's proposals were rejected, and from then on co-operation between Hindus and Muslims in the independence movement was rare.


      It was during the 1930s that the idea of Two-Nation Theory took stronghold thanks mostly due to the efforts of one Muslim poet philospher. In his presidential address to the Muslim League session at Allahabad in 1930, the Sir Allama Muhammad Iqbal visualized the establishment of a Muslim state comprising of North-Western region of India.
      In subsequent speeches and writings, Iqbal reiterated the claims of Muslims to be considered a nation "based on unity of language, race, history, religion, and identity of economic interests".
      Allama Iqbal in his famous letters to Mr.Jinnah elaborated his scheme for a separate Muslim State in its political and cultural context and convinced him of the soundness of his concept.

      However, Iqbal gave no name to his projected state. That was done by a group of students at Cambridge in Britain who issued a pamphlet in 1933 entitled "Now or Never" by Chaudhry Rehmat Ali. They opposed the idea of federation, denied that India was a single country, and demanded partition into regions, the Northwest receiving national status as a "Pakistan".
      They explained the terms follows: "Pakistan…is…composed of letters taken from the names of our homelands: that is Punjab, Afghani,[N.W.F.P.], Kashmir, Sindh, Tukharistan, Afghanistan, and Bloachistan. It means the land of the Paks, the spiritually pure and clean."

      The demand for Paksitan was formally endoresed by Muslim League by 1940 under the charismatic leadership of M.A Jinnah.
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      wow! awsome thread 5Abi!! great pictures and information.
      thanks!

    11. #11
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      Originally posted by Zakk:
      This session further authorises the Working Committee to frame a scheme of constitution in accordance with these basic principles, providing for the assumption finally by the respective regions of all powers such as defense, external affairs, communications, customs and such other matters as may be necessary.

      The sad part is calling for the resolutions proper implementation will give you the title of traitor..
      That part is not entirely true. Some people who have genuinely believed in those principles and fought for them democratically, have also been appointed to the very top positions in Pakistan. Others who have based themselves in foreign lands and launched insurrections against our nation will rightly be called traitors.

      But let us not forget what the Quaid said just before Pakistan became independent:-

      I cannot emphasize it too much. We should begin to work in that spirit and in course of time all these angularities of the majority and minority communities, the Hindu community and the Muslim community --because even as regards Muslims you have Pathans, Punjabis, Shias, Sunnis and so on and among the Hindus you have Brahmins, Vashnavas, Khatris, also Bengalis, Madrasis, and so on --will vanish.

      The sad part is that some accuse people of wanting Punjab/Federal domination when they believe in those principles, while tragically others have violated them by encouraging sectarian and religious discord in Pakistan.

      Long live the memory of our Great Leader.

      Pakistan First!

    12. #12
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      Originally posted by 5Abi:
      Thanks digitalsurgeon. I happen to own that on CD-ROM.


      The word "Pakistan" was actually never mentioned in the 1940 Lahore Resolution. It emphasied on the creation of a separate homeland for the Muslims of India.

      A bit of background here is necessary.

      M. A. Jinnah joined Congress in 1906 and remained a member till 1919. He joined the Muslim League in 1913. He was known as the "Ambassador of Hindu-Muslim unity" up until the Nehru Report of 1928. Jinnah termed it as "Hindu Report" and condemned it and finally parted ways with the Congress of India. Jinnah, in turn, put forward his famous Fourteen Points that would satisfy Muslim interests - in particular, the retention of separate electorates or the creation of "safeguards" to prevent a Hindu-controlled legislature. Jinnah's proposals were rejected, and from then on co-operation between Hindus and Muslims in the independence movement was rare.


      It was during the 1930s that the idea of Two-Nation Theory took stronghold thanks mostly due to the efforts of one Muslim poet philospher. In his presidential address to the Muslim League session at Allahabad in 1930, the Sir Allama Muhammad Iqbal visualized the establishment of a Muslim state comprising of North-Western region of India.
      In subsequent speeches and writings, Iqbal reiterated the claims of Muslims to be considered a nation "based on unity of language, race, history, religion, and identity of economic interests".
      Allama Iqbal in his famous letters to Mr.Jinnah elaborated his scheme for a separate Muslim State in its political and cultural context and convinced him of the soundness of his concept.

      However, Iqbal gave no name to his projected state. That was done by a group of students at Cambridge in Britain who issued a pamphlet in 1933 entitled "Now or Never" by Chaudhry Rehmat Ali. They opposed the idea of federation, denied that India was a single country, and demanded partition into regions, the Northwest receiving national status as a "Pakistan".
      They explained the terms follows: "Pakistan…is…composed of letters taken from the names of our homelands: that is Punjab, Afghani,[N.W.F.P.], Kashmir, Sindh, Tukharistan, Afghanistan, and Bloachistan. It means the land of the Paks, the spiritually pure and clean."

      The demand for Paksitan was formally endoresed by Muslim League by 1940 under the charismatic leadership of M.A Jinnah.
      Very informative 5Abi. Good work.

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      Malik I am referring too: Maulvi A.K. Fazal-ul-Haq, Sher-e-Bengal, Mian Iftikharuddin, Suhrwardy, Sardar Nishtar and others.

      All of them were Democrats and some were favourites of Jinnah..and each ones fate is a sad side story of the resolution.

      ANyway I have had the honour of meeting one of Chaudhry Rehmat Ali's friends who played a role in the publication of that famous pamphlet. What surprised me was how the word Pakistan was largely ignored in the beginning..non of the particpants expected that a state would be created so soon afterwards!
      How can a man die better than facing fearful odds for the ashes of his fathers and the Temple of his Gods?

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      Pakistan Zindabad

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      [thumb=E]q111340_7298776.JPG[/thumb]
      Quaid-i-Azam with members of the Muslim League working committee, 1940

      [thumb=E]q211340_7298776.JPG[/thumb]
      Quaid-i-Azam and Nawabzada Liaquat Ali Khan during the historic Lahore Session of the Muslim League in March, 1940


      [thumb=E]q311340_7298776.JPG[/thumb]
      M.A.Jinnah with the members of All-India Muslim League in Madras, 1941, where the Pakistan Resolution was included in the constitution of the Muslim League


      [thumb=E]q511340_72987761.JPG[/thumb]
      Molvi A.K.Fazul Haq moving the historic Pakistan Resolution passed by the 100,000 members of All India Muslim League at Lahore on March 23,1940

      [thumb=E]q611340_7298776.JPG[/thumb]
      March 1940, Lahore. A view of the mammoth crowd demanding Pakistan and wherein the title of Quaid-i-Azam was conferred on M.A. Jinnah


      [thumb=E]q711340_7298776.JPG[/thumb]
      Artist's rendition of M.A. Jinnah at the Lahore Resolution
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      Excellent thread 5abi ... very informative. Personally I think it's being wasted in this forum, as a lot of people (including myself) never visit this section ... I would never have come across it if Faisal hadn't pointed it out.

      I think it should be made into a stickie in General.
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      Pakistan's day of rejoicing

      Friday March 23, 1956

      Pakistan today celebrated the inauguration of the republic with pomp and ceremony in Karachi and fireworks and illuminations in every town and village. Flags and leaflets were showered down from aircraft in many areas, food and clothing were distributed to the poor, and thousands of prisoners were released.
      The new president, major-general Iskander Mirza, pledged in a broadcast that the republic would be "friend of all and enemy of none." He set out the country's ideals as peace and democracy, fair play towards minorities, freedom from fear and want, but also promised: "The territorial integrity of Pakistan will always remain an invincible article of faith for us."

      Five hundred guests watched the ceremony at which he was sworn in as president and Mr Mohammed Ali as prime minister. The gathering of leading Pakistanis and distinguished visitors assembled at dawn under canopies on the lawns of the president's house. President Mirza and his wife sat on gilt chairs flanked by bodyguards in gold and blue turbans. After a recitation from the Koran, the republic was proclaimed and the oath to defend the constitution was administered by chief justice Monahham Munit.

      Parade of Armed Forces

      The president afterwards took the salute of Pakistan's defence forces at a big ceremonial parade on the polo ground, to which he had driven in a black and gold open coach. Mr Allan Noble, under-secretary for Commonwealth relations, was the chief British guest at the ceremonies, which were also attended by Mr Mikoyan, Soviet deputy premier.

      At a public meeting later in Jehangir Park, where the representatives of many countries to a crowd of 100,000, Mr Mikoyan said that there were a great many possibilities for co-operation between his country and Pakistan, which were still "far from being utilised." He added : "The Soviet peoples regard with deep interest and sympathy the aspiration of the people of Pakistan to strengthen their independence."

      There was a mild disturbance at the meeting when a section of the crowd refused to hear Mr Chand Khanna, the Indian representative. Mr Ali, who was presiding, immediately went to the microphone and reprimanded the people for their behaviour reminding them that they were insulting a guest. Mr Khanna was then given a quieter reception.

      About 5,000 prisoners were released from West Pakistan prisons this morning. At Dacca, capital of East Pakistan, there was a 31-gun salute, a ceremonial parade, and special prayers in mosques
      Guardian
      How can a man die better than facing fearful odds for the ashes of his fathers and the Temple of his Gods?

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