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Feb 18th, 2005, 07:47 AM #1----
Dr. Allama Muhammad Iqbal, The most esteemed muslim thinker and philosopher who gave new dimensions to muslims all over the world and tried to revive the progressive ideological thinking process of Muslim civilization.
But sadly he is taken for granted and although we love him and like his poetry, his work on philosophy is pretty much ignored. In Pakistan, almost all major universities offer doctorate (PhD) in Iqbaliat (indepth study of Iqbal's thinking and philosophy). And every year some people get this degree. But the thought process has been limited to only those who read his work at highest level.
I will try to paste some extracts from Allama Iqbal's work specifically on philosophy.
But first, a quick Intro.
Allama Iqbal's Biography
Iqbal was born in the Punjab on February 22, 1873. His ancestors, who were Kashmiri Brahmins, had embraced Islam two hundred years earlier. Iqbal’s own father was a devout Muslim with Sufistic bent of mind.
He received his early education in Sialkot. After passing the entrance examination, he joined Intermediary College. Mir Hassan, a great oriental scholar, had a special aptitude for imparting his own literary taste and to his students. Under his influence, Iqbal was drawn towards Islamic studies, which he regarded to be an outstanding favor that he could not forget it all his life.
Passing on to the Government College of Lahore, Iqbal did his graduation with English Literature, Philosophy and Arabic as his subjects. At the college he met Prof. Arnold and Sir Abdul Qadir. Iqbal’s poem, Chand (moon) and other early poems appeared in the journal (which belonged to Sir Abdul Qadir) in 1901 and were acclaimed by critics as cutting a new path in Urdu poetry.
It did not take him long to win recognition as a rising star on the firmament of
In the mean time he had done his MA in Philosophy and was appointed as a Lecturer in History, Philosophy and Political science at Oriental College, Lahore. He then moved to Government College to teach Philosophy and English Literature.
Wherever Iqbal worked or thought his versatility and scholarship made a deep impression on those around him.
Iqbal proceeded to Europe for higher studies in 1905 and stayed there for three years. He took the Honors Degree in Philosophy and taught Arabic at the Cambridge University in the absence of Prof. Arnold. From England, he went to Germany to do his doctorate in Philosophy from Munich and then returned to London to qualify for the bar. He also served as a teacher in the London school of Commerce and passed the Honors Examination in Economics and Political Science. During his stay in Europe Iqbal not only read voraciously but also wrote and lectured on Islamic subjects which added to his popularity and fame in literary circles.
Back in India
Iqbal returned to India in 1908. The poet had won all these academic laurels by the time he was 32 or 33. He practiced as a lawyer from 1908 to 1934, when ill health compelled him to give up his practice. In fact, his heart was not in it and he devoted more time to philosophy and literature than to legal profession.
He attended the meetings of Anjuman Himayat-I-Islam regularly at Lahore. The epoch making poems, Shikwa and Jawab-e-Shikwa, which he read out in the annual convention of it one year after another, sparkled with the glow of his genius and made him immensely popular. They became the national songs of Millet.
Iqbal’s other poems Tarana-e-Hind (The Indian anthem) and Tarana-e-Milli (the Muslim Anthem) also became very popular among masses and used to be sung as symbols of National or Muslim identity at public meetings.
The spirit of Change
The Balkan wars and the Battle of Tripoli, in 1910, shook Iqbal powerfully and inflicted a deep wound upon his heart. In his mood of anger and frustration, he wrote a number of stirring poems, which together with portraying the anguish of Muslims were severely critical of the West.
The spirit of change is evident in poems like Bilad-e-Islamia (the lands of Islam), Wataniat (Nationalism), Muslim, Fatima Bint Abdullah (who was killed in the siege of Cyrainca, Siddiq, Bilal, Tahzib-e-Hazir (Modern civilization) and Huzoor-e-Risalat Maab Mein (in the presence of Sacred Prophet).
In these poems, Iqbal deplores the attitude of Muslim leaders who lay a claim to Islamic leadership and yet are devoid of a genuine spiritual attachment to the blessed Prophet.
The turning point in Iqbal’s Life
Iqbal was shaken by the tragic events of World War I and the disaster the Muslims had to face. The genius had passed through the formative period. He had attained maturity as a poet, thinker, seer and crusader who could read the signs of tomorrow in the happenings of today, make predictions, present hard facts and unravel abstruse truths through the medium of poetry and ignite the flame of faith, Selfhood and courage by his own intensity of feeling and force of expression. Khizr-e-Raah (The Guide) occupies the place of pride among the poems he wrote during this period. Bang-e-Dara (The caravan bell) published in 1929 has held a place of honor in Urdu poetry and world poetry.
Iqbal preferred Persian for poetic expression because its circle was wider than that of Urdu in Muslim India. His Persian works, Asrar-e-khudi (Secrets of the self), Rumuz-e-Bekhudi (Mysteries of Selflessness), Payam-e-Mashriq (Message of the East), Javed Nama (The Song of Eternity) belong to the same period of his life. And so is Reconstruction of Religious Thoughts in Islam, which was extensively appreciated and translated into many languages. Academies were set up in Italy and Germany for the study of Iqbal’s poetry and philosophy.
In 1927 the poet was elected to the Punjab Legislative assembly. In 1930, he was elected to preside over at the annual session of Muslim League. In his presidential address at Allahabad, Iqbal for the first time introduced the idea of Pakistan. In 1930-31, he attended the Round Table conference, which met in London to frame a constitution for India.
While in England, Iqbal accepted the hospitality of Spain. He also went to Cordoba and had the distinction of being the first Muslim to offer prayers at its historical mosque after the exile of Moors. Memories of the past glory of Arabs and their 800-year rule over Spain were revived in his mind and his emotions were aroused by what he saw.
Meeting with Mussolini
In Italy Iqbal was received by Mussolini who had read some of his works and was aquatinted with his philosophy. They had long meetings and talked freely to each other.
The Universities of Cambridge, Rome and Madrid and the Roman Royal society organized meetings in his honor. On his way back he also went to Jerusalem to attend the International Conference of Motamar-i-Isalami.
At the invitation of King Nadir Shah, Iqbal visited Afghanistan in 1932. The king received the poet with great honor and met hi privately, as well during which he laid bare his heart. The two talked and wept.
The last phase of Iqbal’s life was embittered with constant illness. But as regards his creative activities this product was most productive. He kept in touch with every question of the day and continued composing beautiful verses.
A few minutes before his death he recited these touching lines:
The departed melody may return or not!
The zephyr from Hijaz may blow again or not!
The days of this Faqir has come to an end,
Another seer may come or not!
Although Iqbal’s was long and protracted the end was sudden and verypeaceful. He breathed his last in the early hours of April 21, 1938, in the arms of his old and devoted servant, leaving behind a host of mourners all over the Islamic world. There was a faint smile playing on his lips, which irresistibly reminded one of the last criterions, which he laid down for a truthful Muslim.
I tell you the sign of a Mumin-
When death comes there is smile on his lips.
Note: The above biography is a summarized version from Glory of Iqbal by Syed Abul Hasan Ali NadwiBazinggaaaa ....
Feb 19th, 2005, 11:38 AM #2----
Originally Posted by Code_Red
Allama Iqbal was born on 9th NOV, 1877
Feb 19th, 2005, 01:16 PM #3----
Yes I noticed. But it is written by someone else. They may have done some research
Anyway DOB is not that important. Important part, his philosophy and thoughts which we need to learn.Bazinggaaaa ....
Feb 19th, 2005, 03:25 PM #4----
"research"............ mein aise hi khush hoti rahi aaj tak
Feb 20th, 2005, 03:38 PM #5----
I can just write and write and Read and Read on/of Iqbal :rehm:
:-)“Quite often good things have hurtful consequences. There are instances of men who have been ruined by their money or KILLED by their COURAGE.” ~Aristotle
Feb 21st, 2005, 11:53 AM #6----
Here is some extracts from his work in philosophy
Reconstruction of religious thought
Knowledge and Religious Experience
Is it then possible to apply the purely rational method of philosophy to religion? The spirit of philosophy is one of free inquiry. It suspects all authority. Its function is to trace the uncritical assumptions of human thought to their hiding places, and in this pursuit it may finally end in denial or a frank admission of the incapacity of pure reason to reach the Ultimate Reality. The essence of religion, on the other hand, is faith; and faith, like the bird, sees its ‘trackless way’ unattended by intellect which, in the words of the great mystic poet of Islam, ‘only waylays the living heart of man and robs it of the invisible wealth of life that lies within’ Yet it cannot be denied that faith is more than mere feeling. It has something like a cognitive content, and the existence of rival parties— scholastics and mystics— in the history of religion shows that idea is a vital element in religion. Apart from this, religion on its doctrinal side, as defined by Professor Whitehead, is ‘a system of general truths which have the effect of transforming character when they are sincerely held and vividly apprehended
No one would hazard action on the basis of a doubtful principle of conduct. Indeed, in view of its function, religion stands in greater need of a rational foundation of its ultimate principles than even the dogmas of science. Science may ignore a rational metaphysics; indeed, it has ignored it so far. Religion can hardly afford to ignore the search for a reconciliation of the oppositions of experience and a justification of the environment in which humanity finds itself. That is why Professor Whitehead has acutely remarked that ‘the ages of faith are the ages of rationalism’ But to rationalize faith is not to admit the superiority of philosophy over religion. Philosophy, no doubt, has jurisdiction to judge religion, but what is to be judged is of such a nature that it will not submit to the jurisdiction of philosophy except on its own terms. While sitting in judgement on religion, philosophy cannot give religion an inferior place among its data. Religion is not a departmental affair; it is neither mere thought, nor mere feeling, nor mere action; it is an expression of the whole man. Thus, in the evaluation of religion, philosophy must recognize the central position of religion and has no other alternative but to admit it as something focal in the process of reflective synthesis. Nor is there any reason to suppose that thought and intuition are essentially opposed to each other. They spring up from the same root and complement each other. The one grasps Reality piecemeal, the other grasps it in its wholeness. The one fixes its gaze on the eternal, the other on the temporal aspect of Reality. The one is present enjoyment of the whole of Reality; the other aims at traversing the whole by slowly specifying and closing up the various regions of the whole for exclusive observation. Both are in need of each other for mutual rejuvenation. Both seek visions of the same Reality which reveals itself to them in accordance with their function in life. In fact, intuition, as Bergson rightly says, is only a higher kind of intellect.
Can some one shed some light on last line.
Will paste more later
Last edited by Code_Red; Feb 21st, 2005 at 12:06 PM.Bazinggaaaa ....
Feb 21st, 2005, 09:29 PM #7----
Originally Posted by Code_Red
Allama Iqbal was born on Nov 9th 1877 In Sialkot
He died in Lahore on April 21st 1938
It's well known to every pakistani who came from the education system of Pakistan
even those who live in Pakistan know about it as they get public holidays“Quite often good things have hurtful consequences. There are instances of men who have been ruined by their money or KILLED by their COURAGE.” ~Aristotle
Feb 22nd, 2005, 12:51 AM #8----
Plz refer to post # 3.
We do celebrate Iqbal day on Nov 9th. But it is written by someone else. I will try to check other sources too. Till then, we can discuss the topic, which is deffinately *not* DOB.Bazinggaaaa ....
Feb 22nd, 2005, 05:21 AM #9
I am only responsible for what I say, not for what you understand.
Feb 23rd, 2005, 12:30 AM #10----
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"the reconstruction of religious thoughts in islam" by allama iqbal has some really strange ideas that do not go much in parrallel to his philosophy as seen in the poetry....
i do read that iqbal did second his thoughts that he presented in these lectures (which were later collected as a book) and his more cherished thoughts r more obvious in the poetry....
this is what molana maududi says about Iqbal in his letter to mariam jameelah:
I do not deny the fact that Allama lqbal aptly criticized the West. and did a great service to the cause of Islam especially through his poetry. But unfortunately, as you already pointed out, his writings are not free from contra. Firstly, lqbal had been constantly passing through different stages of mental evolution during his life span and only in the last years of his life had been able to form in his mind a clear and unalloyed conception of Islam. In his earlier life, many extraneous ideas and influences were freely intermingled with his Islamic notions. Secondly, during a major portion of his life, instead or being a Muslim adhering to strictly cosmopolitan views, there was always a tinge of "Muslim nationalism" from which he could not escape. That is why he felt hesitant in condemning Muslim leaders and modernist thinkers. Sometimes, due to poetic license, he went to the extremes of rationalizing and supporting even their un-Islamic activities. Thirdly, you should bear in mind that many historical and political factors were at work to sustain deep-rooted sympathies for Turkey among the Indo-Pakistan Muslims. These Muslims, after being enslaved by British imperialism, had a sentimental attachment to this last vestige of their vanished glory and defended it in every possible way. As a reward for what Kemal Ataturk had done to save this tottering Muslim State, Muslim scholars and thinkers here were prepared to condone Kemal's anti-Islamic and manifestly blasphemous deeds. With this mental and emotional background, lqbal also until 1930 went on offering apologies and explanations for Kemal Ataturk's "reforms" and trying to find for them a place within the Islamic order. But at last even our poet's patience seemed to be over-taxed and he began to condemn Kemalist innovations openly.
Feb 23rd, 2005, 12:34 AM #11----
Ironically, Maulana Modoodi's student Dr. Israr Ahmed is a big fan of Iqbal.
Mulla ko jo hai Hind maiN sajday ki ijaazat
NaadaaN yeh samajhtaa hai kay Islam hai Aazaad“Quite often good things have hurtful consequences. There are instances of men who have been ruined by their money or KILLED by their COURAGE.” ~Aristotle
Feb 23rd, 2005, 04:15 AM #12----
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ham-asar hazraat amooman aik doosray ke fans nahin huwa kartay....
Feb 23rd, 2005, 08:03 AM #13----
are you my fan ?
Feb 24th, 2005, 08:13 PM #14----
very helpful information code_red...thnaks for posting this threadOh, everything's too damned expensive these days. This Bible cost 15 bucks! And talk about a preachy book! Everybody's a sinner! Except this guy.
Feb 25th, 2005, 04:02 AM #15----
^ The pleasure is mine
But stick around, there will be more discussions in comming days.
Originally Posted by armughal
I think thought process should always be evolotionary. Afterall man is not perfect and learns something every other day. Important thing is vision.
About Ataturk, I think his intentions were right but he went to extreme in search of moderation.
Last edited by Code_Red; Feb 25th, 2005 at 04:08 AM.Bazinggaaaa ....
Feb 26th, 2005, 10:52 PM #16----
Anwaar Qureshi: i want to know the poet of the sher you posted. thanks.
Jul 2nd, 2005, 02:56 AM #17----
More from Iqbal... on mysticism
All that I can do is to offer a few general observations only on the main characteristics of mystic experience. 1. The first point to note is the immediacy of this experience. In this respect it does not differ from other levels of human experience which supply data for knowledge. All experience is immediate. As regions of normal experience are subject to interpretation of sense-data for our knowledge of the external world, so the region of mystic experience is subject to interpretation for our knowledge of God. The immediacy of mystic experience simply means that we know God just as we know other objects. God is not a mathematical entity or a system of concepts mutually related to one another and having no reference to experience.37 2. The second point is the unanalysable wholeness of mystic experience. When I experience the table before me, innumerable data of experience merge into the single experience of the table. Out of this wealth of data I select those that fall into a certain order of space and time and round them off in reference to the table. In the mystic state, however, vivid and rich it may be, thought is reduced to a minimum and such an analysis is not possible. But this difference of the mystic state from the ordinary rational consciousness does not mean discontinuance with the normal consciousness, as Professor William James erroneously thought. In either case it is the same Reality which is operating on us. The ordinary rational consciousness, in view of our practical need of adaptation to our environment, takes that Reality piecemeal, selecting successively isolated sets of stimuli for response. The mystic state brings us into contact with the total passage of Reality in which all the diverse stimuli merge into one another and form a single unanalysable unity in which the ordinary distinction of subject and object does not exist. 3. The third point to note is that to the mystic the mystic state is a moment of intimate association with a Unique Other Self, transcending, encompassing, and momentarily suppressing the private personality of the subject of experience. Considering its content the mystic state is highly objective and cannot be regarded as a mere retirement into the mists of pure subjectivity. But you will ask me how immediate experience of God, as an Independent Other Self, is at all possible. The mere fact that the mystic state is passive does not finally prove the veritable ‘otherness’ of the Self experienced. This question arises in the mind because we assume, without criticism, that our knowledge of the external world through sense-perception is the type of all knowledge. If this were so, we could never be sure of the reality of our own self. However, in reply to it I suggest the analogy of our daily social experience. How do we know other minds in our social intercourse? It is obvious that we know our own self and Nature by inner reflection and sense-perception respectively. We possess no sense for the experience of other minds. The only ground of my knowledge of a conscious being before me is the physical movements similar to my own from which I infer the presence of another conscious being. Or we may say, after Professor Royce, that our fellows are known to be real because they respond to our signals and thus constantly supply the necessary supplement to our own fragmentary meanings. Response, no doubt, is the test of the presence of a conscious self, and the Qur’«n also takes the same view
Jul 2nd, 2005, 05:04 PM #18----
Originally Posted by The Rainmaker
the sher was by Iqbal himself